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生物医学工程类英中对照格局

生物医学翻译

The biologically determined duration of human life should beyond doubt be at least 110 years; some data suggest it should be 150 years. In reality though, the mean duration of human life does not reach even the middle of this span. Whether there has ever been that “golden age” of humankind when, as told by the Biblical sources, people did reach that age – it is hard to tell. The 80-year mark is not reached by 65% of people, 90% do not reach 90 years, and only a few live beyond their centenary. Even if human beings avoid illness and injury in their whole life, they still inevitably die because of “old age”. But why, in some cases, this “old age” takes 60-year-olds, while in other cases, it spares 90-year-olds? What is the basis of ageing?

Many authors addressing these questions only point at life-long contamination of the body, its self-intoxication as it were. But what are the mechanisms of the subsequent disorders? What does the immune system do – our principal guardian of Health that is closely linked to the quality of life?

Indeed, ageing is accompanied by certain changes in the immune system among others. They affect all of its components: stem cells, Т- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages. Since early childhood, the “thymic clock” starts to gradually slow down, which is observed as the lower proliferative activity of Т-cells; their worsening effector and helper functions make one susceptible to infections and malignancies (their rates are known to be age-related). An old person is indeed increasingly vulnerable to infections, which become to be among the principal direct causes of death. Respiratory infections and pyelonephritis are particularly frequent. With advancing age, higher rates are seen also for a number of other diseases, such as cardiovascular pathology, tumours, diabetes, and dementia. These changes taking place in the body are often called “age-related” or “normal for this age”.

Immunodeficiency implies a less strict control of abnormal mitoses, cell divisions and formation of tumour cells. They occur in the body on a constant basis and quite frequently at that; however, possessing a foreign antigenic structure, they immediately are “spotted” by the immune guardians and exterminated on the spot. If these guardians “miss” them the moment they appear and fail to exterminate them on time, their antigenic structure is recognized as “own” not before long, and, according to fundamental biological principles, the production of these antibodies is blocked. The outcome of this body-tumour fighting becomes predetermined.

毫无疑难,生物学决议的人类寿命最少可以或许或许到达110年;局部材料标明应为150年。但现实上,人类均匀寿命乃至还未到达这类时候跨度的一半。如圣经原始材料所述,人类曾到达过这类春秋,但人类是不是存在那样的“黄金期间”,则难以说清晰。65%的人们寿命缺乏80岁,90%的人们缺乏90岁,唯一很少的人们可以或许或许长逾百岁。即便人的平生可以或许或许防止疾病和危险,仍不可防止地因“老年”而归天。可是,为甚么在某些环境下60岁即已称为“老年”,而在其余环境下其可以或许或许耽误到90岁呢?春秋老化的根本是甚么?

很多作者将这些题目的谜底指向了人体的毕生净化,即自我中毒。但随后的杂乱机制是甚么呢?与咱们性命品质紧密亲密相干的首要安康卫士 – 免疫体系的感化是甚么?

现实上,除其余变更外,春秋老化还伴跟着免疫体系的特定变更。这些变更对免疫体系各个构成局部均发生影响:干细胞、Ò- 和B-淋巴细胞、巨噬细胞等。自幼童期间,“胸腺时钟”起头慢慢加速,这可以或许或许视作 Ò- 细胞增殖勾当趋缓;其不时好转的效应器和助手功效使得人们易得传染和恶性肿瘤(已知其病发率与春秋相干)。老年人确切愈来愈轻易受传染影响,其正在成为致使灭亡的首要间接缘由之一。呼吸体系传染和肾盂肾炎的病发率特别频仍。跟着春秋的老化,其余很多疾病的病发率也慢慢降低,比方血汗管病变、肿瘤、糖尿病和聪慧等。人体的这些变更凡是都被称作“老年性”或“该春秋段罕见”的变更。

免疫缺点象征着对非常有丝割裂、细胞割裂和肿瘤细胞构成的节制力度削弱。他们不时在体内天生,并且天生的频次较高;可是,因为其照顾了外来抗原布局,免疫卫士可以或许或许当即“发明”他们,并当即加以覆灭。若是这些卫士在其构成时“错过”了他们,则没法定时覆灭,他们的抗原布局被视作“本身”未几前构成的,而按照根基的生物学道理,随后不会发生针对他们的抗体。这就事后肯定了人体 – 肿瘤抗争的成果。

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